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The AERA sent a delegation of six to Kansas in fall to speak on behalf of two amendments, one extending suffrage to African American men and one extending suffrage to women. While the organization was independent of the Republican Party, it had close ties to the radical wing of the party. This proved to be a very controversial decision because Train was known for race-baiting. Stanton and Anthony did not publicly challenge his depiction of African Americans during the campaign and eventually accepted his funding for their newspaper. Stanton and Anthony turned from an abstract belief in natural rights and universal suffrage to a program for educated suffrage, with Anthony becoming the most important representative of an educated woman.

Rose, Susan B. Anthony or Anna E. I agree and would argue this process began even earlier as she sketched Anthony in The Revolution.


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Stanton, by far the more prolific writer of the two, developed Anthony as a character in the pages of the newspaper. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, majestic and beautiful as a snowy landscape, came forward with that grace as indescribable as it is incomparable …. Susan B. Anthony was there in black silk, with soft white lace around her throat, but even lace, frothy as sea foam, failed to relieve that practical face; just what a gnarled oak is amongst the trees, Susan B.

Anthony is to her sex, hard, obdurate, uncompromising …. But the ornament of the platform was Miss Phebe Cozens, of St. Louis, a young law student of that distinguished city. Her elegant outfit …. The journalist compares Anthony to more conventional women, a contrast Stanton responded to by depicting Anthony among a wide variety of poorly performing men in The Revolution.

While Anthony, taking a page from the abolitionists as well as sentimental writers, could play the public martyr, Stanton discouraged such performances and depicted Anthony as a cool, exacting woman in public and private. In an act of civil disobedience, she, her three sisters, and her neighbor voted in Rochester, New York in November ; three weeks later, on Thanksgiving day, Anthony made a scene as the U. Marshall arrested her for voting illegally and took her on a public street car to the police station.

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Anthony to this episode, Stanton skips the moment of arrest in her article on the vote. I will call again in a few days, after you have had time to read [an extensive list of legal materials]. Selected Papers This was a common technique for Stanton; she depicts Anthony through dialog and scenes rather than simple narration. These profiles served as counter-stereotypes to the negative stereotypes other papers circulated of Anthony. She lays a copy of The Revolution before him and appeals to his legendary vanity: We know that you are the friend of every movement that tends to elevate and purify the morals of society.

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This is the greatest reform of the age. It throws into the shade the question of negro suffrage and the Young libel suit. I come to see if you would not reduce the rates of fare on the Erie road for those attending this Convention. She twice drops her shawl and Mr.

The article is in keeping with the high-spirited, sardonic tone of the entire newspaper. Anthony is shown as a sharp observer and a savvy negotiator, a model for women who needed to turn indirect influence over the men in their families into direct power. Reversing gender stereotypes, she behaves as a foil to the supercilious Gould who is more vulnerable to manipulation than the business-like Anthony.


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Stanton attempted to recruit women who might surreptitiously pick up the paper but be reluctant to openly endorse such a controversial cause. The paper includes article after article showing how various women were converted to the cause and how their efforts had been rewarded with recognition and success. The New National Era encourages its readers to adopt particular political positions on a range of subjects, fostering a Republican citizenry among African American readers.

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Her extemporaneous speeches were frequently laced with clever reversals on her opponents that served to make their appearance and bearing the subject of scrutiny. While Douglass built bridges between his allies and more passive or reluctant members of his audience, Anthony parried the skeptical and sometimes hostile members of her speaking audience.

Anthony had to first create the form of the public woman; women in theater or on the speaking platform were still regarded as sexually promiscuous or masculinized. She met the challenge by breaking rather than mastering the form of many speaking scenarios. The Ladies on a Rampage. Foster launched an extended attack on Stanton and Anthony, accusing them of undermining passage of the Fifteenth Amendment and misspending association funds when campaigning in Kansas with George Francis Train against the Fifteenth Amendment.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and if I had been blacker than sixteen midnights, without a single star, it would have been the same. The meeting ended with a fissure in the Equal Rights Association.

source On display in this pivotal meeting were many of the performance strategies Anthony and Douglass used during the Reconstruction Era. Douglass used his body as a bridge between camps. While surely temperament had much to do with their presentations of self, we might speculate, nonetheless, about how they hoped to impact their contexts. He enjoyed a respectful audience and could afford to let them cut loose in laughter and then recover their attention. Anthony had no such assurance and the laughter was often directed at her rather than with her.

Bodies of Reform The Rhetoric of Character in Gilded Age America America and the Long 19th Century P

He never plays the Sambo but signifies upon such expectations to make his audience self-critical. We do all the whitewashing. We are great on white! We are there. We have been ruled out of the workshop. Douglass links employment discrimination and minstrelsy; minstrel humor and dialect whitewashes employment discrimination by making the relegation of blacks to low-skill work seem natural. Anthony and Douglass made different decisions regarding their self-presentation and their interaction with written and speaking audiences in part because of their dispositions, but in larger part because of their different audiences and objectives.

In confronting speaking audiences, Anthony began from a disadvantaged position with little precedent and without the natural political allies in the Republican Party that Douglass had. She frequently positioned herself on the margins of a room to dramatize her political stance and then pointed to the hypocrisy of those in the room who applied a double standard to women. He did not coach his newspaper readers through examples either of himself or others in how to insinuate themselves into powerful organizations or how to negotiate with power brokers.

Anthony and Douglass had long careers and faced tremendous hostility at various points, Anthony perhaps most forcefully during the Reconstruction Era when she opposed the Fifteenth Amendment. For Douglass, the era of Reconstruction marked the height of his direct political power, but he faced serious challenges to his leadership from former allies in the abolitionist movement in the s and from African Americans disappointed by Republican betrayals in the post-Reconstruction period.

Anthony, in particular, used her persona as a protective cover, a screen revealing little of her internal feelings. For six days per week, between January and June , they effaced their individual identities by wearing the same purple, white, and gold sashes and by silently communicating their messages on large banners they held in front of the White House. President, how long must women wait for liberty? Many have attempted to claim the Douglass mantle, and yet in the generation following Douglass, major black leaders tended to adopt one or two writing, oratorical, or self-management strategies but leave others out.

Booker T. Washington and W. He was an organic intellectual who peppered his speeches with stories from his youth shaped to play into the dominant discourse of American self-reliance. Yet the strain of his work tolled on him and he died at only fifty-nine of heart failure. Gary S. Milligan College. That exchange, for many, captures the state of racial justice in the U. Douglass was especially vexed by the indifference of Northerners, whose prejudice prevented them from standing against racial injustice.