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Daunton ed. III: — Cambridge, Some recent work has begun to address the relationship between cities and war in the twentieth century; see Goebel , S. Burchell , G.
Davidson , A. Basingstoke , , For a discussion of the press response to the circular see Grayzel, At Home and under Fire , —5. British architects generally took a more central role in debates over the protection of civilians from air raids than elsewhere in Europe where these discussions were also being held, Cohen, Architecture in Uniform , Scott and R.
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Coppock, quoted in ibid. Titmuss, Problems of Social Policy , 2nd edn Westport, , —2. Steele-Perkins and T. In that sense, these accumulated experiences are an essential resource for any further physical and social planning of the city. Modernity has overlooked the urban warfare, and modern urban planning does not address its probability. The WWII tactics of defending urban centers mainly focus on the external threats but not on the possible internal ones. However, nowadays, threat is coming from within including civil wars and terrorism.
Modern warfare not only threatens cities in the Middle East, Africa and Latin America: terrorism demonstrates an internal menace that threatens the global city. The aftermath of the terror attacks on Paris and the emergency condition taken in Brussels afterward, have shown a sort of fragility in the preparedness of modern cities to confront the state of exception that more and more and on more and more places becomes the regular state. References Abujidi , Nurhan , and Han Verschure.
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Accessed Dec 30, DiMarco, Lou. Kansas : Combat Studies Institute Accessed Jan Evans, Michael. The relationship between political geography and uneven development became a particularly significant focus of attention see Smith Political geographers also turned their attention to processes of nation-building and substate nationalism, seeing these as predicated in significant ways on the nature of the state and the system of states e. Even some studies in electoral geography began to look at the relationship between spatial structures of power and electoral outcomes Johnston et al.
The closing decade and a half of the twentieth century saw the emergence of new theoretical influences and a broadening of the scope of political geography Agnew The growing influence first of structurationist, and then of post-structuralist, theories in the social sciences had clear impacts on political geography. The concern with the relationship between structure and agency that was part of the structurationist critique prompted political geographers to focus more attention on the ways in which political contexts are created through the interplay of large-scale forces and local practices.
In his influential volume Place and Politics , John Agnew argued that political studies are generally based on the assumption that, in the modern world, local and regional identities are being replaced by national communities segmented by socio-economic differences, not by geographic sectionalism. In the process, he made a compelling case for taking the concept of place seriously in political geography see also Johnston The structurationist literature also brought with it growing interest in the spatial structures and arrangements that circumscribe social and political life.
This offered a potential bridge between new currents of thought and longstanding efforts to analyze the development and meaning of the world political map Gottmann An important element in building that bridge was Robert Sack's work on Human Territoriality Sack Sack's work directly challenged the dominant tendency to treat political territories as a priori spatial givens, in the process opening an important theoretical window for political geographic work focused on the nature and meaning of specific political-territorial developments.
Work on the politics of place and on territoriality has developed in conjunction with themes from the post- structuralist literature to open new vistas for political geography. The very centrality of politics and political relations to post-structuralist thought has greatly abetted this process Painter Indeed, at some level much of human geography as currently practiced is about politics, making it difficult to establish exactly what constitutes political geography per se.
Yet, as Agnew , p. Indeed, the recent political geography literature addresses themes that range from the role of political geographic arrangements in the constitution of gendered identities to the implications of new telecommunications technologies for the territorial integrity of states. Pedersen, H.
Kienzler, in International Encyclopedia of Public Health , In the last two decades, a new political geography has emerged changing the world map and the relations between ethnic groups. The intersection of global processes with local or regional differences brings into focus the ways in which collective identity is shaped, constructed, imagined, and reconstructed for various political ends. As a result, in the second half of the twentieth century, the number of ethnic conflicts increased significantly, showing extreme forms of violence, wars, and intractable forms of conflict with short- and long-term impact in the collective health and well-being of local populations.
We review main political science theories, anthropological and gendered perspectives of ethnic conflict, as well as peacekeeping, peacemaking, and peace-building interventions. In the last two decades, a new political geography has emerged changing the world map and the relations between nations and ethnic groups. In the following, we review main political science theories, anthropological and gendered perspectives of ethnic conflict, as well as peacekeeping and peace-building interventions.
Tim Summers, in China , For example, from the late s to the early part of this century, the fastest growing areas of the PRC were on the coast, but since around this pattern has begun to change. War and peace during the twentieth century have not only changed the political geography within Europe but have also stimulated an interest in international studies. Born as a reaction to World War I, international studies has focused on the relationship among states on the line of the treaties of Westphalia , declaring a territorial sovereignty of all states of the Empire and their right of concluding alliances with one another and with foreign powers.
Carr in , and formalized by H. It brings to light states' interests and a scheme of rational actions that characterize them. This tradition based on the logic of expertise has guided the area studies in Europe. Based on their imperial tradition, France and Great Britain have given priority to the study of their colonies in order to understand the functioning of the society and obviously to exercise their power. National characteristics appear also in their method in connection with the tradition of social sciences in each country. Whereas France has privileged a juridical and administrative approach in the description and analysis of other countries, Great Britain looked for grand strategy through international history of diplomacy, based on the descriptions of British diplomats recalling the methods of social anthropology, and developed theories on international studies along the line of the International Society tradition of the English school.
Enriched by the missionaries and useful for diplomats, the realist vision on international studies meant to fight, during the interwar period, against the idealist approach according to which ideas are more important than states' interests. The confrontation of realists and idealists nevertheless brought a dynamic perspective in the perception of the state, where moral values can generate social change and affect relations among states.
Following Foucault, power is conceived largely in terms of its linkages to knowledge and ideology, funneled through numerous channels, simultaneously discursive and material, contingently exercised, and invariably resisted. Its effects are seen throughout the rhythms of daily life and social reproduction, including the media, educational systems, and the geopolitics of the body. Issues of immigration and citizenship loom large in this respect Staeheli,